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Amie O’Kane
Grantham University


All things must evolve or they remain constant as the world changes around them. From there the path could either lead to being left behind or dying out. UPC’s or Universal Product Codes are the foundation of the barcode used for data collection. They are now becoming a thing of the past as an old yet new technology surpasses its capabilities—Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags or Auto-IDs. RFID’s have actually been around for quite some time, just used for different purposes such as during WWII to track cargo, agriculture to track livestock, or in transportation like the EZ Pass technology. Now, RFID’s are utilized in many other industries to ensure proper identification of “coded” or “tagged” items for data collection, much like UPC’s, but they also increase production, improve inventory, and provide much more information to its end user (Moss & Lazar, 2013). This paper elaborates this comparison of UPC’s vs. RFID’s and reflects on the current growth of the RFID market, highlighting many examples used in businesses today.

                                                             Comparative Analysis
Universal Product Codes, introduced in 1973, use black and white barcodes placed on items coupled with scanners (hand-held or stationary) and databases. UPC’s are matching on identical items and scanned as they are retailed (Sousa & Oz, 2015). The benefits of using this very inexpensive (.01 cent per tag) data collection method are: ensuring correct pricing, generating sales reports, collection of manufacturing data, inspection, logistics, transportation, and inventory control (Moss & Lazar, 2013). The drawbacks of using barcodes is that they require line of sight and can only be read one at a time. While UPC tagging has worked for many industries for some time, they are limited to item level coding and the benefits aforementioned.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags on the other hand have been jetting past this technology, according to the RFID Journal, showing since 2012 nearly 98% of companies are pursuing transitioning to RFIDs over UPCs (Roberti, 2012). The main difference is that RFIDs can be used almost anywhere, not just for SCM, logistics, or retail, and can gather much more information at a much faster rate. Imagine going to the grocery store and instead of scanning each individual UPC coded item, a reader can scan all of the items at once tagged with RFID technology, saving time for both the business and consumer. This not only saves the business time and unnecessary labor, it also speeds up the buying process for the consumer.
The RFID contains chips or tags embedded with an antenna and integrated circuit, uses readers that emit electrostatic energy signals to the chips that return to the reader, and requires RFID specific software to allow for the transfer of data to a database (Moss & Lazar, 2013). Readers must be in proximity to pick up the signals, the more expensive the RFID reader, the longer the signal. There are a two types of RFID’s including passive tags or Read/Write which can be rewritten over and over (most common), and WORM tags or Write-Once-Read-Many which are not alterable once written. RFID tags not only track items at the item level, but also at the unit level and line of sight to read the tags is not required. Chips can also be molded into casings making them invisible to the consumers (Moss & Lazar, 2013).
The benefits of using RFID’s are vast to include: anti-counterfeiting; automating business processes; improvement of asset utilization; enhancing product traceability; improving quality control; increasing SCM, efficiency, and collaboration; improved inventory management; reducing 86’ed products; reducing theft and product loss; increased synchronization of data across supply chains and internally; improvement of accuracy of transactions; enhanced security measurement; and capturing of more information in real time (Roberti, 2012). The drawbacks of RFID technology all include time to implement at first and cost. RFID tags cost between 5 cents and $10,000 each depending on the speed and range. There are also software costs and setup costs which can range between $50,000-$200,000, plus education and training of use (Moss & Lazar, 2013). However, as technology and application prices become cheaper, RFID value increases (Qianli & Zhang, 2015).

Industry Specific Examples
Since there are countless ways to use this technology, and we are discovering more and more each day, I will list the different types of industries using RFID’s currently and give some examples in the following table (RFID Journal, 2011):
(Note: these are only a portion of the fields, not all can be listed with this study)

Supply Chain Management DOD, Custom Cupboards Track shipments & assets, instruct robots accelerating production and cutting costs
Arts & Entertainment Malibu Rum, SmartKitchen, Heiniken Keeps track of liquor pouring to decrease loss or theft, Automated recipe reader, refrigerator and stove for proper food handling and storage, also can be used for advertising to beacon consumers
Education Brittan Elementary ID tags of students, tracks attendance, bussing, and GPS locator for potential kidnapping
Laundry Genius Laundry Reads instructions for washing each garment and washes accordingly, automated detergent based on size
Travel Bucharest Smart Public Transportation Beacons and Bluetooth for riders with disabilities/impairments
Agriculture New Zealand Livestock Ensuring food safety
Medical Dutch Research Firm Developing life-enhancing/saving sensor technology
Aerospace/Aviation Airbus and Boeing Tracking & assembling parts
Apparel/Footwear American Apparel, Macy’s, JC Penney, Walmart… Item-level deployment and reduced labor/inventory stocking
Energy/Utilities DOE Environmental tags to collect temperature, humidity and other data
Mass Transit Bombardier’s Transportation,


Improve rail worker safety, reduce baggage loss to .01%
Mobile Marketing Dairy Queen Customer loyalty and discount program
Stock Market New York Stock Exchange Tracking handheld trading to keep traders out of unauthorized areas
Casinos Bellagio Casino & Resort Chips in the chips to deter theft
Car Dealers Fields BMW Winter Park Tracking tires to deter theft
Libraries San Bernardino’s Library To track books
Pharmaceuticals Gador Laboratories Reduce counterfeiting of drugs
Construction Magnor Plant Speed up inspections and increase safety
Coffee Farms Almacafe Bean tracking and bagging
Magazines Focus Understand readership and collect customer data
Pest Control Dow AgroSciences To help find termites faster

No one knows exactly when RFID’s will completely replace UPC’s, but predictions are swarmed around the year 2030 (RFID Journal, 2011). RFID technologies are part of a universal infrastructure which is the backbone of mobile commerce. The goal for any industry is to add value to increase output and revenues, while decreasing inputs and costs. This technology does just that. RFID’s enable the mobility of many crucial factors that free up much human labor, especially in the fields of data collection (Qianli & Zhang 2016). Some fear that technologies such as these are the reasons behind people losing jobs. It is my observation that all things must change, we can’t keep doing the same jobs expecting to grow. Computers give us that freedom to choose other occupations or perform other tasks that enable this growth. Therefore, I welcome this new technology and have plans to incorporate RFID’s in all my business and even home-life processes to give me the freedom to evolve.

Moss, H. K., & Lazar, L. D. (2013). radio frequency identification technology: a new method of controlling inventory. Supervision, 74(1), 8-11.
Qianli, D., & Zhang, M. Y. (2016). Usage of RFID Technology in Supply Chain: Benefits and Challenges. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 11(5), 3720-3727.
RFID for What? 101 Innovative Ways to Use RFID. (cover story). (2011). RFID Journal, 11-14.
Roberti, M. (2012). Interest Shifts to Internal RFID Applications. RFID Journal, 9(5), 8-9.
Sousa, K. & Oz, E. (2015). Management information systems (7th ed.). Connecticut: Cengage Learning.



            Graduate school is demanding and so is adulthood, period.  Time doesn’t always seem to be on our side. Yet, time management has been identified as a major indicator of higher performance, lower stress, and lower anxiety for graduate students (Forbus et al, 2011).  This report accentuates time management from my own perspective, along with additional tools and techniques from the experts.  Dare to walk in my rainbow colored, multi-dimensional shoes.  Teaching by example is the easiest and most efficient way to relay this type of information as there really is no exact science, but merely techniques and tools that work for some but not all.  This is due to the fact that it involves behaviors, which could develop either in a good way or bad way, depending on our individual choices and personalities as well as individual circumstances.  Some have many roles to fill, or obstacles to overcome along the way…but, take it from me–if there is a will, there is a way.  And you don’t have to have superpowers to succeed or be a traditional student with an IQ of 180, you just need to manage your time effectively.

Hello, My Name is Not Superwoman

Nearly 16 years ago I was unfortunately disabled by chemical toxicity while serving my country in the USAF, causing my CNS to almost entirely shut down.  Being Irish and full-spirited, I stood up and began fighting it.  Although it has been an extensive and entirely painful process of healing, I am happy to say I am about 80% healed.  However, if I stress too much or take on too much, I begin to revert to more painful states that take work to get out of, sort of like a car that overheats if pushed too hard.  Time management for me isn’t an option I can afford to ignore and it includes stress management and pain management as well.  My college career began before I got sick while I was stationed on an AF base, and came quickly to a halt for nearly two years.  I then decided to do online college during my therapy and juggle being a single mother at the same time.  My family thought I was crazy, literally, but I was going crazy just focusing on the pain.  I needed a distraction.  It has been quite a slow process because I couldn’t juggle it that well at first, until I focused more on managing my time.

It wasn’t a race for me, it was more like a slow climb to victory with me having to come to terms with not being “superwoman” anymore.  I always thought I had to be the best mother, or ahead of my class, or the greatest friend, or finish first…but in reality I just had to do what I could do with what I was given.  I suppose my first piece of advice in time management is to be completely honest with yourself, yet be easy on yourself as you do.  Unless you are an avid procrastinator, then pull up your big boy or big girl pants and do the best that you can do within reason.  My mother always told me that if you are going to do anything, you may as well do it right, otherwise your just wasting precious time.  There is a balance, you just need to find yours.

Expert Advise

Let’s see what others have to say about time management—a few literature reviews proliferated into the following techniques:

  • The key to successful time management is planning (Parry, 2005).
    • Plan each day in advance.
    • Prioritize while planning.
    • Block or chunk your activities adding small breaks in between.
  • Audit your time—you can’t manage it unless you know exactly what you are doing with each moment (Novotney, 2015).
  • Figure out what works best for you—morning person vs. evening, multi-tasker vs. one task at a time…and design your schedule around your strong suits (Novotney, 2015).
  • Manage your stress and time concurrently—stress, apprehension, anxiety, obstacles, challenges, commitments, uncertainty all are factors to consider when determining your weekly schedule. Figure out what activities are more stressful for you and allow yourself more time to cope with those tasks to take some pressure off (Forbus et al, 2011).
  • Just get started, as your motivational state doesn’t have to match the task you’re working on (Novotney, 2015). Even if you don’t feel like it, just get started and soon enough you’ll be chugging away like the little engine that could.
  • Stick to your plan, once you deter (unless you must) it’s not always easy to find your way back in time (Novotney, 2015). In the military we call this concept self-discipline.  I think of it this way: the amount of self-discipline you have is parallel to your maturity level, and maturity is a conscious choice and skill that takes practice honing.  We aren’t just born mature; we grow to maturity.

Just an Example

How does a mother of a teenage daughter and preschool son, disabled veteran, independent business consultant, mentor, and graduate student manage her time?  Here’s an example of an Excel worksheet tool I have grown quite fond of at this juncture in my life:


Notice how I plan my weeks ahead and even schedule making a new schedule each Thursday.  I also schedule many breaks, even if they are short as I don’t want to burn out or revert to more painful conditions.  Priorities are key for meà1. Health (what good am I to anyone if I’m not ok) 2. Family’s health, happiness, schooling, and activities 3. School 4. Work 5. Friendships.  I know I am lucky that I get to put my priorities in that order but it wasn’t so easy to get them there, that’s what took so many years to figure out and many sleepless nights until I got it right.


We are the authors of our own stories in my book.  And sometimes I think fiction is a lot more powerful (and fun) than facts.  So use your imagination, how would your story go?  Then persistently practice making it that way. There are several tools out there that can assist you (see below for examples) with your own time management plan.  Utilizing these types of tools really does help, and so does asking for help when it gets too hard.  No one is superman or superwoman, we just are all humans.  Keep your head up and your eyes on the prize and you’ll make it through your graduate school career in one piece.  If I can do it, so can you.


Helpful Time Management Tools: 

Microsoft Excel- a College Student Schedule Template

Microsoft Outlook- a task manager, calendar, and list builder

Microsoft One Note- you can make lists, place sticky notes on computer screen, and store/organize research and class lecture notes in one place

ATracker- has a stop watch to track activities, automatically builds reports on time spent, and has a calendar and task list as well.

Way of Life- good habit building app, to help get rid of bad habits and replace them with good habits, like studying.

Priority Matrix- prioritization system that helps improve focus, productivity, accountability, and transparency.


Forbus, P., Newbold, J. J., & Mehta, S. S. (2011). A STUDY OF NON-TRADITIONAL AND


Novotney, A. (2015). Where Do the Hours Go? American Psychological Association, 26.

Retrieved from:  http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2013/03/hours.aspx

Parry, C. (2005). Right Techniques Make Good Time Management. Inside Tucson Business,

15(24), 23.


Image result for good relationships

{  Go to bed at the same time when possible- aids in communication and sex life

{  Be a team with remedial life tasks to get them done and out of the way faster

{  Dates are important– disclaimer:  doesn’t have to cost money (walks, picnics, dancing under stars) and keep kid/home talk to a minimum (less than 20%)

{  Take couple-type classes together

{  Reunite each day by greeting one another lovingly (sets tone for evening), and save stressful/heavy convo for later on in the evening if possible

{  Couples that pray, meditate, go to church, or practice spirituality together have a lower chance of divorce

{  Don’t let communication become taxing- keep deep convo to a few sentences or short time frames then keep it light and sweet, fun makes life more bearable, especially when you can have fun together

{  Learn to know and like each other’s friends and schedule couple outings regularly

{  Always believe in the best of your partner, like how you did when you first met them.  What qualities do you remember attracted you to them and what ones attract you now?  Belief can move mountains in relationships

{  Regularly praise and never discourage your partner in all ways, honor them especially in front of others

{  Play as much as possible, light teasing, games, being silly together builds your friendship and tightens your bond just as intimacy does as well

{  Choose your battles, we are all human so if we do get angry try not to hurt others to show they are hurting you but talk (at the right time) things through. [QSS-Quick to listen, Slow to speak, and Slow to anger (James 1:19)]

{  Ward off bad arguments and resentment with love, communication, and sex to make up and NEVER go to bed angry

{  Encourage one another to keep each other’s spirits high- spiritual well-being (yours and your partners) is key for sustainability

{  And always have their back 😉


This poem was inspired by the past few years of economic struggle…for those who have lost their jobs, can’t find new ones, lost loved ones, have suffered injustice, and everyone who is hurting because of the times that we have to face.  My message to you:  don’t give up, God IS there and He will provide.  I know this from personal experience.  He always does.  Always remember that no matter what you are NOT alone.

Always Hope

Hope is fading but I am still holding on by a thread. 

God wants me to hold on and make

me over and the Devil wants me dead. 

Keep Breathing….Keep Walking….Keep Pressing.  

Why do we wait so long before Confessing? 

I’m starving for Truth…for Meaning…for SOMETHING that feels Right. 

He said to Walk by Faith and not by Sight. 

Well I am God and I’m starting to question whether all of the Sacrifice is for nothing. 

Whether the blessings and peace are even coming.

…or did I do it all wrong? 

Maybe I am just a broken record playing the same old song. 

God please give me strength to keep going, please carry me across the sand. 

This is me begging…please take my hand. 

Ok, we all do it, but it’s time to man up. Put down the rock you were about to throw at the people in your life that you allow to frustrate you, and take a good look in the mirror. Yeah, people screw up, people make mistakes, people do wrong things…but who are we do judge them when we screw up, we make mistakes, and we do wrong things sometimes? You want to really learn how to love, love like God does, without judgment, without condition…love them through whatever they are going through, even if it hurts you. Even if it seems likes they are being evil. It is possible to set healthy boundaries and not take on their problems but still love them. That’s just not the most obvious thing we want to do…we want to grab ahold of them and make them stop, or make them behave in a more loving way. But that is not our job. That’s God’s job. I’m not saying to allow people to hurt you, of course, if it is too hard to be around them without being able to establish a healthy boundary, then you must back away and love them from a distance.

I know it’s easier to blame the people in our lives hurting us and wallow in it, waiting endlessly for them to stop and see what they are doing, but it is NOT the way, the truth, or the light. Everything from what family we are born into down to every person in our lives is OUR CHOICE. We put them there to learn something. So man up, look in the mirror, and say I chose this path for a reason, what can I learn from it? And how can I handle it the way God would want me to? Sometimes I even sit in a quiet place when I am just at my wits end and say God…speak…I’m listening. Then I listen for His instruction. He usually tells me always just to love. Love myself, love others, and speak and act out of this love, no matter what is happening. I don’t always listen but I’m learning to. I’m human, and so are you.Furthermore…unhappiness and happiness are both personal, conscious choices and we have the ability to choose whatever we want. I’ve been struggling with this concept as I have not been able to be happy much of the time without someone loving me. After realizing how deeply I’ve been only hurting myself all these years, I finally realized what was stopping me from choosing happiness without someone making me happy, I didn’t believe I deserved to be loved unconditionally, and I didn’t love myself unconditionally. These destructive beliefs we carry sometimes are so deep-routed and have been there since childbirth, that it takes a long time and deep reflection to be able to uncover what they are and how to let them go or change them. My mom told me the other day that when I was born my family didn’t come see me at the hospital, they were so excited about my brother’s birth a year before, that they didn’t think or feel much about another baby for some reason. They didn’t care much either when I got home from the hospital or even throughout my life, even though my mother did. This somehow planted these unhealthy beliefs about not deserving love deep inside my subconscious. I am 32 now so it took that many years to uncover such an important piece of my life puzzle, one that directed my emotional system and caused many years of disease and suffering. You see when your subconscious map isn’t in line with the ground you are walking on, you will feel overwhelming degrees of sadness, anger, betrayal, and even lost and this makes it almost impossible to ever choose happiness even if we wanted to. Because we are not ultimately being ourselves. And we discover who we are when we love ourselves unconditionally. When we realize that God is love and God lives in us and through us, that when our map lines up with the ground again. I was loving God unconditionally but hating myself, constantly at war, without peace. I was a walking paradox.
So when someone cuts you off when you’re driving, love them anyway. When your significant other is being selfish and hurting you, love them anyway. When your children are not behaving how you raised them to, love them anyway….The real happy place comes when you just focus on your own problems. Look in your mirror and reflect on your good and your bad…then love yourself unconditionally. Even if you don’t like your hair, or your weight, or your lack of motivation at times…love yourself anyway. Being selfless and having the ability to really help others is a lot easier when we are healthy, when we are humble, and when we are in that place of living out of love. A great friend once told me that ultimately, each one of our journeys here on earth has only ever been about learning to love ourselves first, fully, and unconditionally, as God loves us. If we accomplish only this in our lifetime we have succeeded.

Be an extension of God’s love –>all the dis’s will fade away (disharmony, dislike, disease….) and all the pro’s will come your way (progress, promises, protection, and providence).

Say this affirmation out loud three times then use your inner voice and say it three times with your eyes closed: “I know exactly who I am when I love myself unconditionally.”


We are taught to face reality way before we are taught that we must create our own reality.  Life is strange that way.  Almost seems backwards.  But I think it is to show us what we must do exactly to change things.  If we don’t know the bad how are we to determine what is good?  It’s the whole duality of life.  Without sadness we would not know what happiness even looked like.  And without failure we would not know what success really is. We don’t really know better until after we have walked down the path of not knowing better.  So looking back in order to project a new future, I have learned that I must move forward with a reality I want to create.  And the only reality that truly exists through my eyes is the one I have focused into being.  Same goes for you, we all create our own realities.

Statistics tell us supposed “facts” based off of past experiences.  But what statistics are about any reality created right at this moment?  None.  If nothing is impossible with God why do we constantly rely, make inferences, and base our decisions off of observable averages of past behaviors to predict the future outcomes of unobservable quantities?  Often setting into motion the very things we do not want, instead of stating exactly what it is we want and believing in God not man.  The more I learn, the more I realize that any one piece of information may be true, but ultimately it is a narrow-minded way of operating.  Opening our minds, hearts, and souls to God and letting Him instruct us is really the only valid way to learn anything of true value, of truth in general.  Through Christ and Christ alone we must put all our understanding, all of our hope, and all of our will…not man and not knowledge from man.

 “I am the way, and the truth, and the life.  No one comes to the Father except through me.” (John 14:6)

I’ve learned a great deal these past few months on this new journey that God has laid out for me.  It has been hard at times, painful even…but it also has been wondrous and exciting and the closest I’ve felt to being near God since I was a child.  There are so many things that are thrown into your path to teach you when you finally wake up and want to create a reality that is your own instead of letting life control you. Everything I have learned and am still learning I can’t possibly write it all out although I wish I could. However, I can say this…it all starts with now and the conscious decision to do God’s will and discover your true purpose in this life.  Once you’ve made that decision, stand up and start walking in the spirit.  Be prepared for anything to come your way by putting on God’s armor (Ephesians 6:11-13) and don’t sway or back down, just keep going.  There is nothing—no thought, action, or belief—on your path you choose that is so severe that you can’t go back a few steps and reverse it, choosing another path.  I close my eyes, ask God to guide me, and pretend I am typing out (creating) my life on how I want it to go.  When it starts getting uncomfortable and I find myself struggling or getting ill, I picture me pushing control+alt+delete on the keyboard, ending the process I have created for myself that isn’t working.  Then I pray at that very moment and say…”Lord…speak, I’m listening…”  And He then tells me where to go from there.  You’ll be amazed once you try this to see all of the things fall into place and how you don’t have to do anything to put them there besides closing your eyes and asking God for them to appear.



Lord, I pray for our unity, our hearts not to be troubled and filled with fear of man, but only fear of you God.  Help us to not fall into false traps that lead astray and also help us to help one another and not speak out of anger but out of LOVE to one another.  We trust you with all of our hearts, souls, spirits, and strength and know you will protect us from evil and guide us on your narrow path.  Help us to open the eyes of our hearts and minds and not fall into judgmental or ignorant patterns of thinking, but instead keep our hearts and minds filled with the knowledge and wisdom that is of God and God alone.  We love you God and we love each other as we love You and You love us…unconditionally. 

Ephesians 4

I therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called.  With all the lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering, forbearing one another in LOVE.  Endeavoring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of PEACE.  There is ONE body, and one Spirit as ye are called in one hope of your calling;  ONE Lord, ONE Faith, ONE baptism.  ONE God and Father of ALL, who is above ALL, and in you ALL.  But unto every one of us is given GRACE according to the measure of the gift of Christ.  Wherefore he saith, when he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.  Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth?  He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill ALL things.  And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers.  For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ.  Until we ALL come in the UNITY of the FAITH, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ:  That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine by the sleight of man, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive; But speaking the truth in LOVE, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ.  From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by which every joint supplieth according to the affect working in the measure of every part maketh increase of the body onto the edifying of itself in LOVE.  This I say therefore the testify in the Lord that ye henceforth walk as other gentiles, walk in the vanity of their mind.  Having the understanding darkened, being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them because of the blindness of their heart.  Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness, to work all uncleanness with greediness.  But ye have not so learned Christ; If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him, as the truth is in Jesus:  That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts; And be renewed in the Spirit of your MIND.  And that ye put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.  Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbor; for we are members one of another.  Be ye angry and sin not; let not the sun go down upon your wrath:  neither give place to the devil.  Let him that stole steal no more; but rather let him labour, working with his hands the thing which is good, that he may have to give to him that needeth.  Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but that which is good to the use of edifying, that it may minister grace unto the hearers.  And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.  Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice:   And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another, even as God for Christs’ sake hath forgiven you.